Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmāthā and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth’s highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas. The international border between China (Tibet Autonomous Region) and Nepal runs across its summit point.
The current official elevation of 8,848 meter, In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society, upon a recommendation by Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India. As there appeared to be several different local names, Waugh chose to name the mountain after his predecessor in the post, Sir George Everest, despite George Everest’s objections.
Mount Everest attracts many climbers, some of them highly experienced mountaineers. There are two main climbing routes, one approaching the summit from the southeast in Nepal (known as the “standard route”) and the other from the north in Tibet. While not posing substantial technical climbing challenges on the standard route, Everest presents dangers such as altitude sickness, weather, and wind, as well as significant hazards from avalanches and the Khumbu Icefall. As of 2017, nearly 300 people have died on Everest, many of whose bodies remain on the mountain.
Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary made the first official ascent of Everest in 1953, using the southeast ridge route. Tenzing had reached 8,595 m (28,199 ft) the previous year as a member of the 1952 Swiss expedition. The Chinese mountaineering team of Wang Fuzhou, Gonpo, and Qu Yinhua made the first reported ascent of the peak from the north ridge on 25 May 1960.
While the survey wanted to preserve local names if possible (e.g., Kangchenjunga and Dhaulagiri), Waugh argued that he could not find any commonly used local name. Waugh’s search for a local name was hampered by Nepal and Tibet’s exclusion of foreigners. Many local names existed, including “Deodungha” (“Holy Mountain”) in Darjeeling and the Tibetan “Chomolungma”, which appeared on a 1733 map published in Paris by the French geographer D’Anville. In the late 19th century, many European cartographers incorrectly believed that a native name for the mountain was Gaurishankar, a mountain between Kathmandu and Everest.
Waugh argued that because there were many local names, it would be difficult to favour one name over all others, so he decided that Peak XV should be named after Welsh surveyor Sir George Everest, his predecessor as Surveyor General of India.Everest himself opposed the name suggested by Waugh and told the Royal Geographical Society in 1857 that “Everest” could not be written in Hindi nor pronounced by “the native of India”. Waugh’s proposed name prevailed despite the objections, and in 1865, the Royal Geographical Society officially adopted Mount Everest as the name for the highest mountain in the world.
One of the big activities is trips to base camp (aka trekking), which can be higher than some of the highest mountains. The other big activity is serious attempts to make it to the top of Everest, and those in support of those attempts. The peak time for this is late May, because that is when the monsoons push the jet stream away, there is another time later in the year when the monsoon ends yielding another break in the weather, but there is more snow then. Some technology for climbing include crampons, fixed ropes, various cold-weather gear, bottled oxygen, and weather prediction. Predicting the weather is critical, one of the big disasters came in 1996 when a storm hit during a summit bid.
In modern times, there is greater on-demand logistical support available such as internet access, but also some new challenges like not offending the locals and watching out for oxygen-bottle thefts. Helicopter support has grown and the availability of helicopter rescues increased, but there are limits on how high and in what weather they are able to fly. Modern dangers include unexpected avalanches (these claimed many lives in 2014 and 2015), sudden onset of altitude sickness, and classic climbing danger – falling. For a price, permits are available from both China in the Tibet region and from Nepal; there is a multitude of mountaineering firms from all over the world operating on the mountain.
Mt. Everest has two main climbing routes, the southeast ridge from Nepal and the north ridge from Tibet, as well as many other less frequently climbed routes.Of the two main routes, the southeast ridge is technically easier and more frequently used. It was the route used by Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay in 1953 and the first recognised of 15 routes to the top by 1996.This was, however, a route decision dictated more by politics than by design, as the Chinese border was closed to the western world in the 1950s, after the People’s Republic of China invaded Tibet.
Most attempts are made during May, before the summer monsoon season. As the monsoon season approaches, the jet stream shifts northward, thereby reducing the average wind speeds high on the mountain. While attempts are sometimes made in September and October, after the monsoons, when the jet stream is again temporarily pushed northward, the additional snow deposited by the monsoons and the less stable weather patterns at the monsoons’ tail end make climbing extremely difficult.
Source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Everest